Glossary of Terms
- Adsorption: phenomenon whereby a solid or a liquid attracts and retains its surface gases, vapors, liquids or dissolved bodies. Alkalinity is due to CO2 absorbed by water.
- Alkalinity: name given to the quantitative capacity of an aqueous solution to neutralize an acid. Alkalinity is due mainly to CO2 absorbed by water.
- Biocide: chemical substance or microorganism intended to destroy, deter, render harmless, or exert a controlling effect on any organism by chemical or biological means.
Macrofouling problems within the seawater piping system
- Biofouling: fouling process that leads to deterioration of equipment, components or systems, caused by the uncontrolled growth of living organisms on its surface.
- Thermal power plant: installation used in the electrical generation from the energy released as heat, usually by combustion of fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas or coal. This heat is used by a conventional thermodynamic cycle to move an alternator and to produce electrical energy.
- Combined cycle power plant: power plant where the thermal energy of fuel is converted into electricity by two thermodynamic cycles: one corresponding to a gas turbine, generally natural gas, by burning (Brayton cycle), and the other conventional water/steam turbine (Rankine cycle).
- Cooling system: mechanical device based on the principles of thermodynamics and fluid mechanics designed to transfer thermal energy between two foci, displacing the thermal energy contained in one focus in order to obtain a lower temperature in it.
- Coagulation: process that allows to increase the tendency of particles to aggregate each other to form larger particles and therefore precipitate faster.
- Combustion or burning: an oxidation chemical reaction, which releases energy in the form of heat.
Macrobiological growth problems
- Concentration: ratio or relationship between the amount of solute and the amount of solvent, where the solute is the substance being dissolved, the solvent is the substance which dissolves the solute and the solution is the result of the homogeneous mixture of the above two.
- Corrosion: deterioration of a material as a result of electrochemical attack by its environment. On a wider meaning, it can be understood as the general tendency of one material to find its most stable form or the lowest internal energy.
- Desorption: phenomenon whereby a substance is released from or through a surface. This process is the opposite of adsorption.
- Solution: homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. In such a mixture, a solute is a substance dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent.
- Greenhouse effect: process by which solar radiation reflected by the planet’s surface is absorbed by greenhouse gases and it is re-radiated in all directions. The main greenhouse gases are: water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen oxide, ozone and chlorofluorocarbon.
- Efficient energy use: practice that aims to reduce energy consumption through efficient energy use, getting optimize production processes and energy use using the same or less to produce more goods and services.
Life cycle of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis)(Mytilus galloprovincialis)
- Renewable energy: energy that comes from resources which are naturally replenished on a human time scale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
- Sodium hypochlorite: a chemical compound with the formula NaClO. It is commonly known as bleach.
- Carbon footprint: the total sets of greenhouse gas emissions caused by an organization, event, product or individual.
- Larva: a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.
- Macrophyte: an aquatic plant that grows in or near water and is either emergent, submergent, or floating.
- Macrofouling: biofouling can be categorized into two types: microfouling and macrofouling. The difference lies in the size of the organisms deposited. When this phenomenon is caused by large size organisms such as mussels, clams, barnacles, etc., it is known as macrofouling and is combated via the application of chlorinated chemical compounds with the consequent impact on the aquatic environment.
- Zebra mussel: (Dreissena polymorpha) a bivalve mollusc of salt and freshwater. It feeds on plankton and organic matter in suspension. It is included among the 100 most damaging invasive exotic species in the world and it causes serious problems due to its uncontrolled growth.
Barnacle and serpulids fixed on mussel shells
- Microbiology: the study and analysis of microorganisms, small living organisms that are not visible to the human eye, also known as microbes.
- Mitigation: vulnerability reduction, i.e. attenuation of potential damage to life and goods caused by an event.
- Mollusc: an invertebrate of a large phylum that includes snails, slugs, mussels, and octopuses. They have a soft, unsegmented body and live in aquatic or damp habitats, and most kinds have an external calcareous shell.
- Monitoring: required supervision for the implementation of the action plan established in the planning of actions, behaviours and thoughts, aimed at achieving a target.
- pH: a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or basicity (alkalinity) of an aqueous solution. pH is the negative of the logarithm to base 10 of the activity of the hydronium ion H3O+. pH is a determining factor in controlling the growth of organisms.
- Polychaeta: an aquatic animal, almost exclusively marine, characterized by carrying a pair of parapodia in each segment, with its dorsal and ventral branch. They are carnivorous of sandy bottoms.
- Kyoto Protocol: an international protocol, which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), that commits State Parties to reduce greenhouse gases emissions that cause the global warming: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrogen oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbon (HFC), perfluorocarbon (PFC) and Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), in an approximate percentage of at least 5%, during the period 2008-2020, compared to 1990 emissions.
- Reagent: a substance that interacts with another in a chemical reaction leading to other substances with properties, features and different conformation, called reaction products or simply products.
- Environmental remediation: deals with the removal of pollution or contaminants from environmental media such soil, groundwater, sediment or surface water.
- Refrigeration: process that consists of reducing or avoiding the increase of the heat level of a body or space.
- Sustainability: a characteristic or state whereby the needs of the present and local population can be met without compromising the ability of future generations or populations in other locations to meet their needs. It can keep on its own, as it does, for example, an economic development without external help or diminution of existing resources.
- Viability study: analysis or determination whether it is possible to carry out a plan or project satisfactorily, considering different factors.
- Zeolite: microporous aluminosilicate mineral commonly used as commercial adsorbents and catalysts.